Climate variability risk analysis, WUE and NUE for cropping systems based on historical as well as future climate change scenarios
Water is the most crucial input for agricultural production. Globally, agriculture accounts for more than 80% of all freshwater used by humans, most of that is for crop production. Currently most of the water used to grow crops is derived from rainfed soil moisture, with non-irrigated agriculture accounting for about 60% of production in developing countries. Monsoon rainfall variability and declining water table due to over exploitation resulted in shortage of fresh water supplies for agricultural use in India, which calls for an efficient use of this resource. Water-use efficiency (WUE) and nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE) are important measures that can affect the productivity of cropping systems in different Agroeco-systems. Strategies for efficient management of water and nitrogen for agricultural use involves conservation and judicious use of water; optimal application to enhance of nitrogen use efficiency for crop productivity is of paramount importance especially in rainfed systems.