A pilot study on the effect of Cu, Zn, and Cd on the spectral curves and chlorophyll of wheat canopy at tiller stage
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The aim of this study was to investigate canopy spectral reflectance responses to different levels of heavy metals copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) induced stress. Random blocks design experiment was conducted to simulate Cu, Zn, and Cd at five concentration levels. Chlorophyll and visible and near infrared canopy reflectance were measured for each treatment 56 days after seeding using chlorophyll meter SPAD-502 and spectroradiometer, respectively. New vegetative indices termed ratio of inclination angles (RIA), MERIS (the medium resolution imaging spectrometer) terrestrial chlorophyll index (MTCI), and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were used to assess the response of canopy spectral reflectance to different heavy metal levels. Significant spectral variability especially in blue, red, and near infrared reflectance was observed for different heavy metal treatments. One-sample test showed significant difference for NDVI, MTCI, and RIA among five-level treatments at the 0.01 level. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the two vegetative indices (RIA and MTCI) were significantly correlated with chlorophyll meter values for Cd, Cu, and Zn treatments. However, NDVI was only significantly correlated with chlorophyll meter values for Cu and Zn treatments. Linear regression analysis also illustrated that RIA and MTCI were potential indices for predicting chlorophyll concentration with significant F test under Cu-, Zn-, and Cd-mediated stress.