Women, Work and Wage Equity in Agricultural Labour in Saiss, Morocco
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The primary purpose of this research is to investigate and assess how working conditions, opportunities, constraints and sociocultural norms interact to shape the experiences of female and male agricultural laborers working under different terms and conditions (full time, part time, formal, informal, seasonal and permanent) in the agricultural sector. The empirical data for this study was collected through a survey administered to 415 laborers (187 women and 228 men) in Saiss, Morocco. The surveys were conducted in the districts of Betit, A’in Jom’a, and Sidi Sliman because they differ significantly in gender norms, levels of economic development and biophysical dynamics. The survey data was complemented with 36 unstructured interviews with participants in paid agricultural labour as well as participant observation. Our findings have revealed that higher-paid equipment-intensive tasks tend to be assigned to men whereas women are much more likely to find themselves performing lower-paid time-intensive tasks. Even in the informal sector, men are routinely paid more than women for the same work. Enforcing equal-pay legislation for women is an essential first step towards enabling women to benefit equitably with men from their labor contributions to the agricultural sector.