Effect of Genotype, Environment and Malting on the Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content of Indian Barley
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Seventy-two Indian barley varieties were screened for their antioxidant activity for 2 years using two antiradical systems. Differences in the levels of antioxidant activity in 2 years were obtained, but the genotypic differences still remained and a 2-fold variability was observed in the antioxidant activity. Year-to-year differences were also obtained when the selected varieties were analyzed for their free and bound phenolic contents. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity and phenolic content in the five varieties grown at six different locations revealed that the antioxidant activity and the free phenolics were more influenced by the genotype, whereas the bound and the total phenolics were most influenced by the environment. After malting, no significant changes were observed in the antioxidant activity; however, a 2-fold increase was observed in the total phenolic content, which was mainly due to the increase in the level of free phenolics after malting.