Effect of genotypes and culture media on embryogenic callus induction and plantlet regeneration from mature and immature bread wheat embryos
In this study, the effects of media, varieties and their interaction on callus induction and plant regeneration in bread wheat obtained from immature and mature embryos, used as explants, were studied. Four Moroccan bread wheat varieties ‘Achtar’, ‘Amal’, ’Mehdia’ and ‘Rajae’ were cultivated on four media (M1 to M4). A significant effect of variety, medium and variety x medium interaction were observed for callus induction from both immature and mature embryos. All tested media induced embryogenic callus for all varieties. For plantlet regeneration, the induction media used for callus induction had a significant effect on plantlets regeneration (p<0.001). M2 (21.988%) with 1.4168 number of plantlets regenerated per callus and 8 number of plantlets per regenerating callus showed higher plantlets regeneration rate from immature embryos and the same medium (20.223%) with 0.8427 of plantlets regenerated per callus and 7 number of plantlets per regenerating callus for plantlets regeneration rate from mature embryos. The most favourable medium was M2 for all the varieties from both immature and mature embryos. This medium will be used for genetic transformation by Agrobacterium from immature and mature embryos.