Strategies for Disseminating Improved Water Harvesting Technologies in Jordanian Badia
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The main objective of this study is to enhance dissemination of improved water harvesting technologies in Jordanian Badia. This study came as a to build on the adoptability study of water harvesting technologies that were conducted last year by the Water and Livelihood Initiative (WLI) and to develop a framework or a guideline for effective and practical linkages between research, extension, and farmers .In Jordan a big need for agricultural extension services to enhance access to and knowledge of new technologies, to ensure that farmers can reach markets with their produce, to enable farmers to understand new challenges arising due to the changing climate, and to assist farmers in making optimal use of their available resources. This study used Key informant interviews and desk reviews was used to assess current institutional framework and agenda for water harvesting technologies dissemination - including their methodological approaches, their level of interventions, and tools used to reach farmers was used to collect information to achieve the purposes of this study. data of the key informative interviews collected contained information on ,goal and Mission NCARE, clientele Served ,Primary source of funding for fiscal year 2015,Institutional linkages and partnerships , allocation of time by field extension or advisory staff, Organizational Structure, Performance of Field Extension Staff, importance of the Research Extension(R-E) interface, transformation of research knowledge, assessment of outcomes and impact, and key constraints/Opportunities to rolling out proven technologies. The interviews were conducted with the head of NCARE, the DG assistant for Extension Service, DG assistant of research affairs in addition of the heads of research directorates and extension directorates and the subject extension subject matter specialists. In total 8 key informant interviewed were conducted 4 of them from extension and other 4 with research directorates. Qualitative and quantitative methods of data analyses used in study used. The collected data was coded, entered and checked for consistency before keying into the SPSS software for further processing and analysis to generate descriptive statistics (frequencies, mean, minimum, maximum, standard deviations, etc.). Results of the study showed that the core work of extension staff in NCARE is the field works which include visiting field farmers, meeting with farmers to solve their problems, applied the planned extension program and new technology, activities of FFS and participate in national campaign of plant disease control. The time allocated for field work is estimated at 60% of the staff working time. About 25% of extension time is allocated for extension planning and support activities that include all the office work.; preparation the annual work plan, monthly reports and evaluation report, present their work at the end of year and participation in training courses as trainee or sometimes as trainer. The main source for extension to obtain innovations at NCARE, universities, international institutions that conduct projects in the country, and low percentage of innovations comes from ministry of agriculture, training and internet. The innovations flow from universities to extension still weak and need much work to strengthen the relation between universities and research and extension institutions. International institution plays a vital role in introducing and transfer technology and innovations from outside to inside the country. NCARE serve wide range of client groups of farmers, but time allocated for each group is differ according to size of farms manage by farmer. Major time (24%) is given to small farmers, this is well understandable as small farmers can’t afford for private extension services, those farmers are depend on rainfed for planting their crops or livestock owners. NCARE has shortages in livestock specialist and almost weakness in livestock management and health extension programs. For funding NCARE receives its core funding from the Government. Other direct funds are received from national and international donors to finance the implementation of projects. As of transformation of research knowledge usually research results documented in several methods such as: Annual report, publications, videos, poster and social media. Annual reports are the main method of documentation in the governmental research centers as NCARE with less degree for publications while in universities the publications are the main method for documentations. However, the website for institutions are become one of good method for documentation and it is expanding with time. The questioner’s results showed that the annual report is the main, if not the only, method for extensions officers to excesses the research results which mean that the extension not benefited from many research results which documented as publication. Of course individual extensions officers access some research results by other means such as individual communications, training courses and with little degree from social media and websites. The strength and weaken points in the current transformation of information are highlighted by the study results. The main weakness points are: Researchers still dominant in the technology transfer, lack of trust between extension officers and researchers, absence of formal channels between research and extension, the well formulated results to introduce to farmers, lack of budget and well trained staff, lack of well-organized channel to transfer technology from researchers to extension to farmers, and lack of incentives to both researchers and extension .However in the current system there are several strength points: Field days, using media and participation of farmers in the implementation research work at their fields (administrations), the high willing of many persons in technology transfer, presence of researchers and extension officers under one institution facilitate the information transformation. NCARE has a wide range of linkage and partnership with national universities, ministries, organization and with international research and development institutions. Deans of agriculture colleges are members in NCARE board, several research work and projects are conducted in cooperation between NCARE and universities. Several of NCARE staff was sent to Jordanian universities to get their master or PhD degree. Feedback loop of extension experiences get back to research and to policymakers, this loop still weak but it comes from farmers to extensions to researchers then some problems discussed and solution took place and send again to the field usually DG assistant and DG who take the decisions, some problems transfer to the minister or concerned ministries . Although there are many proven technologies, but the rat of its rolling out still under expectations. Reasons behind that are due to constraints and challenges facing the rolling up rate. Including the cost of a new technology is high and most farmers can’t pay for it especially at the rain fed areas, -Large scale agricultural problems such as drought, farmer's educational level, difficulties in convincing farmers to change their attitudes and thinking, he long time it takes farmers to adopt the new technologies in addition to many other reasons and constraints. The study concluded that although NCARE achievements of its objectives considered satisfaction, with more financial and staff support can achieve many results. Emerging research and extension in one institution it is a unique experience in the region. Flowing the information from research to extension then to farmers and the feedback from farmers to researchers still weak and needs much effort to make this linkage good enough. In spite of 8 years NCARE practices the merging extension and research, still the merge not reach to the planned aim, and many researchers as well as extension officers feel they are separate bodies. Regardless the weakness point and problems off merging, for Jordan the merging is the idle situation for extension and for research. With merging the extension become more effective, better facilities and finance and better knowledge compare with period before merging.