Gastrointestinal nematode infection in small ruminants in Ethiopia: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections are a major health challenge affecting productive and reproductive performance of sheep and goats in Ethiopia. However, there is no comprehensive summary on the occurrence and distribution of the infection at national level. This systematic review provides pooled prevalence estimates and assesses potential predictors of the nematode infections in small ruminants, i.e. helpful in planning interventions or control strategies. The review used 50 animal level datasets retrieved from 24 manuscripts. The studies used data collected from 9407 sheep and 3478 goats. A meta- analytical approach was employed to analyze Effect size (ES). The reported GI nematodes represented eleven genera affecting sheep and goats including: Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Teladorsagia/Ostertagia, Strongyloides, Bunostomum, Nematodirus, Chabertia, Trichuris, Cooperia, Skrjabinema and Oesophagosto- mum. The GI nematodes pooled prevalence estimate in the random effect model was 75.8% (95% CI: 69.6, 80.8). The subgroup analysis revealed significant (p < 0.05) differences in the prevalence between different regions and type of diagnostic methods used. ‘Postmortem technique’ and ‘eastern part of the country’ were associated with higher GI nematode prevalence and accounted for 68.1% of the between studies heterogeneity. In light of the high parasitic prevalence in all agro-ecologies, the need for strategic intervention is recommended. Meanwhile, data need to be generated for some of the regions where dependable survey reports are lacking.