Factors determining the adoption of laser land leveling in the irrigated rice–wheat system in Haryana, India
Prakash Aryal, Jeetendra
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Laser land leveling has been increasingly adopted in the irrigated rice (Oryza sativa L.)–wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping system in the state of Haryana (India), located in the north-western Indo-Gangetic Plains. Still, many farmers have applied it to only a fraction of their land. In this study, we used data collected from 621 farm households in Haryana and applied a double-hurdle model for assessing the factors that determine the adoption and intensity of laser-leveling technology. The results show that large land holders are more likely to laser level their farm land; however, we found a negative association between land holdings and the proportion of laser-leveled land. Information about technology through farmer-to-farmer communication and through private traders, participation in agricultural training and membership in local agricultural institutions increased both the likelihood and the intensity of adoption. Our findings call for a closer collaboration among the various stakeholders, specifically to promote farmer-to-farmer communication through increased participation in local institutions and increase the rate of adoption of laser leveling technology.