Stabilized Nitrogen Fertilizers to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Improve Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Australian Agriculture
Loss of nitrogen (N) from applied fertilizer is a major cause of inefficiency in N fertilizer utilization. This loss of N can occur through many pathways including ammonia (NH3) volatilization, nitrate (NO3) leaching and emissions of gases such as nitrous oxide (N2O). One way of addressing these losses is to amend N fertilizers with compounds that slow the production of the forms of N that can be lost. Two such compounds are urease inhibitors, designed to reduce NH3 loss, and nitrification inhibitors, designed to reduce NO3 leaching and gaseous emissions. However, the impact of these compounds of N loss is available across soil type, region, cropping system and temperature. An examination of where these compounds may be beneficial requires detailed laboratory and field conditions for improving N use efficiency in Australian agriculture.