Assessment of Past Performance and Lessons Learned
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To guide program design, we assessed past research, highlighting successes and failures, both to benchmark projected gains and to derive strategic lessons for the future. This required a progress report on research on the mandate crops in the target countries, with a particular focus on the period since 2000. In making this assessment, we have tried to determine what worked, what didn’t, under what conditions and why. Successful adoption of agricultural innovations requires not just the right technology, but the right enabling environment in which that technology is embedded (Sumberg 2005). Specifically, it requires the right mix of markets, institutions and policies to create incentives for adoption. We have used this analytical framework of markets, institutions and policies to analyze case studies of high and low adoption and draw strategic lessons that can guide the way forward and help improve the performance of the program. This section presents an overview of past performance, sourced mainly from evidence generated by the DIIVA project which covers 8 mandate crops for 12 target countries for 2009-2010 (Walker and Alwang 2015). Adoption rates derive from a mix of household surveys and expert opinion. Figures for India are a weighted average (based on area planted) for the most important states where these crops are grown. Gaps in coverage for sorghum and finger millet in ESA were filled from other studies and information from plant breeders. The coverage is reasonably complete, with information for 46 combinations of countries and crops.