Management of Soil-Borne Diseases of Grain Legumes Through Broad-Spectrum Actinomycetes Having Plant Growth-Promoting and Biocontrol Traits
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Subramaniam Gopalakrishnan, Srinivas Vadlamudi. (20/8/2019). Management of Soil-Borne Diseases of Grain Legumes Through Broad-Spectrum Actinomycetes Having Plant Growth-Promoting and Biocontrol Traits, in "Plant Microbe Interface". United States: Springer.
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) are the two important grain legumes grown extensively in the semiarid tropics (SAT) of the world, where soils are poor in nutrients and receive inadequate/erratic rainfall. SAT regions are commonly found in Africa, Australia, and South Asia. Chickpea and pigeonpea suffer from about 38 pathogens that cause soil-borne diseases including wilt, collar rot, dry root rot, damping off, stem canker, and Ascochyta/Phytophthora blight, and of which three of them, wilt, collar rot, and dry root rot, are important in SAT regions. Management of these soil-borne diseases are hard, as no one control measure is completely effective. Advanced/delayed sowing date, solarization of soil, and use of fungicides are some of the control measures usually employed for these diseases but with little success. The use of disease-resistant cultivar is the best efficient and economical control measure, but it is not available for most of the soil-borne diseases. Biocontrol of soil-borne plant pathogens has been managed using antagonistic actinobacteria, bacteria, and fungi. Actinobacterial strains of Streptomyces, Amycolatopsis, Micromonospora, Frankia, and Nocardia were reported to exert effective control on soil-borne pathogens and help the host plants to mobilize and acquire macro- and micronutrients. Such novel actinomycetes with wide range of plant growth-promoting (PGP) and antagonistic traits need to be exploited for sustainable agriculture. This chapter gives a comprehensive analysis of important soil-borne diseases of chickpea and pigeonpea and how broad-spectrum actinomycetes, particularly Streptomyces spp., could be exploited for managing them.