Agronomic Performance of Elite Stem Rust Resistant Spring Wheat Genotypes and Association among Trial Sites in the Central and West Asia and North Africa Region
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Wuletaw Tadesse, Osman Abdalla, Francis Chuks Ogbonnaya, Kumarse Nazari, Izzat Tahir, Michael Baum. (1/5/2012). Agronomic Performance of Elite Stem Rust Resistant Spring Wheat Genotypes and Association among Trial Sites in the Central and West Asia and North Africa Region. Crop Science, 52 (3), pp. 1105-1114.
The new stem rust race Ug99 is an alarming threat to the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production of the world for the very fact that it overcomes many of the known Sr genes including the most commonly used genes such as Sr31, ST24, and Sr36. The wheat breeding program at the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) has distributed the first stem rust resistant spring wheat yield trials composed of 24 wheat genotypes for the Central and West Asia and North Africa (CWANA) region to identify high yielding wheat genotypes, which can be recommended for direct release and/or parentage purposes by the National Agricultural Research Systems (NARSs). The additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) analysis of variance for grain yield (kg ha(-1)) of 24 wheat genotypes tested in 15 environments showed that wheat grain yield was significantly (p < 0.01) affected by environments (E), genotypes (G), and genotype x environment interaction (GEI). From the total sum of squares due to treatments (G + E + GEI), E contributed 90.1% and GEI accounted for 8.3% while G effect represented only 1.6%. According to AMMI2 estimate, Baasha-14 and Amir-2 with mean grain yield levels of 5168 and 5127 kg ha(-1), respectively, are identified as the best genotypes with high yield potential across a wide range of environments. Based on correlation and clustering analysis among environments, the Ghab site in Syria (E7) is identified as the highest yielding and best correlated site and therefore it is recommended as a key location for evaluation of wheat germplasm yield potential in ICARDA's wheat breeding program. We recommend the high yielding and Ug99 resistant genotypes identified in this study for direct release as replacement of the susceptible varieties by the respective NARS and/or to be used as parents at ICARDA and by NARS collaborators.
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