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dc.creatorRyan, Johnen_US
dc.identifier.citationJohn Ryan. (1/1/2008). A perspective on balanced fertilization in the Mediterranean region. TURKISH JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY, 32, pp. 78-79.en_US
dc.description.abstractThe demands on agriculture to produce food and fibre are driven by the inexorable increases in the world's population. However, advances in agricultural science in the past century have helped food production to keep pace with population growth, thus keeping hunger and malnutrition at bay. The achievements in enhanced agricultural output, especially in the developed world, are attributed to 3 main factors: expansion of irrigation, development of improved higher-yielding, disease-resistant crop cultivars, and chemical fertilizers. Fertilizers are fundamental to producing more crop output from existing land in cultivation. Along with increased fertilizer use comes greater concern about the environment in view of the potential for pollution arising from excessive and inappropriate nutrient use. The past half century has seen a rapid expansion in the Western world in the use of chemical fertilizers, especially nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) to a lesser extent. These developments are more recent for lesser-developed countries, but have nonetheless stimulated major increases in crop yields, and indeed crop quality. In the West Asia-North Africa (WANA) region, most countries have experienced increases of 10-20-fold in the use of N and P fertilizers in the past 3 decades in both dryland and irrigated agriculture. Viable agricultural production in the Mediterranean region is not possible without chemical fertilizer use. Applied research has shown the benefits of the major nutrients, and their requirements for maximum economic crop production; it also has identified new production constraints, such as micronutrients, for a range of crops, as the yield possibilities are raised by irrigation, improved varieties, and better management. The fact that crops need variable amounts of nutrients and that no one essential nutrient can substitute for another, in addition to the economic and environmental implications of excessive nutrient use, raises the issue of balanced fertilization. This concept, in essence, implies tailoring individual nutrient needs of crops according to their physiological requirements and expected yields. As fertilizer use is universal and is influenced by soil and climatic factors, in addition to crops, the issue of nutrient balance is particularly relevant. In this presentation, the author briefly examines balanced fertilization in the context of the Middle East region, with particular emphasis on experiences in Syria, which hosts the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas. Future challenges for the agricultural research and fertilizer sectors are highlighted in order to most effectively combine efficient crop production with environmental protection.en_US
dc.sourceTurkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry;32,(2008) Pagination 78-79en_US
dc.subjectcropping intensificationen_US
dc.subjectdryland agricultureen_US
dc.subjectfertilizer useen_US
dc.subjectirrigated crop productionen_US
dc.subjectmiddle east regionen_US
dc.subjectrational fertilizationen_US
dc.titleA perspective on balanced fertilization in the Mediterranean regionen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen_US
cg.subject.agrovocnutrient use efficiencyen_US
cg.contributor.centerInternational Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas - ICARDAen_US
cg.contributor.funderInternational Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas - ICARDAen_US
cg.contributor.projectCommunication and Documentation Information Services (CODIS)en_US
cg.contributor.project-lead-instituteInternational Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas - ICARDAen_US
cg.coverage.regionWestern Asiaen_US
cg.isijournalISI Journalen_US
dc.identifier.statusOpen accessen_US
cg.journalTurkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestryen_US

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