Establishment and yield of wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) after early sowing at various depths in a semi-arid Mediterranean environment
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L. Mahdi, C, J. Bell, J. Ryan. (4/9/1998). Establishment and yield of wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ) after early sowing at various depths in a semi-arid Mediterranean environment. Field Crops Research, 58 (3), pp. 187-196.
Shallow sowing and in ridges are common practices in the west-Asia north-Africa (WANA) region in rain-fed cereal farming. Soil water is often limited in the top soil layer at the optimum sowing time, and stands of wheat may be established poorly and have low yields unless sowing is delayed until later rainfall. Sowing more deeply may enhance establishment due to higher soil water content in the seed zone, leading to better germination and emergence of seedling. Otherwise, a grain yield reduction will occur due to the delay in sowing after the optimum time. In a 2-year field experiment at Tel Hadya, Syria, the optimum time of sowing for rainfed cereals was between early November and early December. The establishment of plants sown 3, 9, and 12 cm deep and in ridges was poorer than that of plants sown at 6 cm, causing reductions in tiller numbers, leaf area index (LAT) and yield. Grain yield from ridge planting was 40% lower on average than from sowing at 6 cm. At this depth, yields declined by 5% per week with delay in sowing after the optimum time at 6 cm depth, but by lesser amounts for other depths, and varied little for the ridge method of planting. To maximize yield in this environment, i.e., 2.5 t ha(-1), it is important that crops are sown early at the appropriate depth, even when pre-sowing rainfall is less than enough to wet the profile fully. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
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