Morpho-physiological traits to complement grain yield selection under semi-arid Mediterranean conditions in each of the durum wheat types mediterraneum typicum and syriacum
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Paolo Annicchiarico, Luciano Pecetti. (1/1/1995). Morpho-physiological traits to complement grain yield selection under semi-arid Mediterranean conditions in each of the durum wheat types mediterraneum typicum and syriacum. Euphytica, 86, pp. 191-198.
Some 238 landraces from Algeria and Tunisia representative of the mediterraneum typicum durum wheat type and 265 landraces from Syria and Jordan representing the syriacum type were grown in a semi-arid Mediterranean environment of Northern Syria characterized by moderate drought stress. The germplasm types were compared for mean value, level of variation and relationships with grain yield of various morpho-physiological traits possibly usable for indirect selection of best yielding materials. The syriacum germplasm showed higher yield mainly due to greater earliness of cycle, slightly longer grain filling period, shorter stature, lower early growth vigour and higher drought tolerance expressed by a visual score recorded in another, more stressful environment in the region. It also showed lower variation for all morpho-physiological characters except plant glaucousness, for which it was more variable. The wheat types differed not only for architecture but also for optima of individual morpho-physiological traits required to maximize the yield response in the given environment. Higher yield of syriacum materials was attained at same heading and three to four days delayed maturity with respect to average phenology of three well-adapted control cultivars, and it was favoured by increasing number of kernels per spike, early vigour and drought tolerance. Higher yield of mediterraneum typicum landraces was related to heading and maturity dates approaching those of the control cultivars and to increasing kernel weight, early vigour and drought tolerance. Plant stature hardly affected the yield. Both absent and strong glaucousness could confer a yield advantage in syriacum materials.