Adaptation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to harsh Mediterranean environments. III. Plant ideotype and grain yield
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Erik Van Oosterom, Edmundo Acevedo. (1/1/1992). Adaptation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ) to harsh Mediterranean environments. III. Plant ideotype and grain yield. Euphytica, 62, pp. 29-38.
Differences in development of the apex may be the reason for cultivar differences in adaptation of barley to terminal drought in Mediterranean environments. The present study was conducted to identify apical development patterns of barley adapted to terminal drought stressed Mediterranean environments and to determine plant characteristics which can be used as criteria to select for an adapted development. Thirty-five two-rowed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) entries were grown at two sites in northern Syria (Tel Hadya and Breda) in 1988/89. Four apical development patterns were observed: a slow or fast vegetative development, depending on the vernalization requirement, combined with a slow or fast generative development, depending on the daylength response of the crop. Early heading was related to fast generative development. Leaf appearance rates on the main shoot were constant during a major part of the pre-anthesis period, but significant differences were observed among development patterns. Genotypic differences in main shoot tiller number were associated with differences in the onset of tiller appearance and not with differences in tiller appearance rate or final leaf number on the main shoot. Since vernalization requirements and daylength responses are largely independent of terminal drought stress, selection for an adapted phenology can be done in favourable environments. Morphological traits related to these responses (winter growth habit, cold tolerance, plant colour, growth vigour, heading date) can be used as criteria for selection for adaptation to low-rainfall Mediterranean environments.
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