Food system resilience: Defining the concept
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In a world of growing complexity and uncertainty, the security of food supplies is threatened by many factors. These include multiple processes of global change (e.g. climate change, rapid urbanization, population ageing), unexpected shocks (e.g. natural disasters, financial and political crises), and unexpected responses of food systems themselves to these processes and events. In this paper, we develop a conceptual framework for food system resilience, and consider how this could be implemented through stakeholder participation to ensure food security for everyone. Resilience is conceptualized from a holistic perspective, as encompassing the complexity of whole food systems, including social, economic and biophysical processes operating at many scales. It presents the opportunity to eradicate weaknesses and build capacities in the food system while dealing with future uncertainty.