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dc.contributorSahrawat, Kanwar Lalen_US
dc.contributorNakahara, K.en_US
dc.contributorRao, Idupulapatien_US
dc.contributorIshitani, Manabuen_US
dc.contributorHash, Charlesen_US
dc.contributorKishii, Masahiroen_US
dc.contributorBonnett, Daviden_US
dc.contributorBerry, Wadeen_US
dc.contributorLata, Jean-Christopheen_US
dc.creatorSubbarao, G. V.en_US
dc.identifier.citationG. V. Subbarao, Kanwar Lal Sahrawat, K. Nakahara, Idupulapati Rao, Manabu Ishitani, Charles Hash, Masahiro Kishii, David Bonnett, Wade Berry, Jean-Christophe Lata. (30/11/2013). A paradigm shift towards low-nitrifying production systems: the role of biological nitrification inhibition (BNI). Annals of Botany, 112(2), pp. 297-316.en_US
dc.description.abstractBACKGROUND: Agriculture is the single largest geo-engineering initiative that humans have initiated on planet Earth, largely through the introduction of unprecedented amounts of reactive nitrogen (N) into ecosystems. A major portion of this reactive N applied as fertilizer leaks into the environment in massive amounts, with cascading negative effects on ecosystem health and function. Natural ecosystems utilize many of the multiple pathways in the N cycle to regulate N flow. In contrast, the massive amounts of N currently applied to agricultural systems cycle primarily through the nitrification pathway, a single inefficient route that channels much of this reactive N into the environment. This is largely due to the rapid nitrifying soil environment of present-day agricultural systems. SCOPE: In this Viewpoint paper, the importance of regulating nitrification as a strategy to minimize N leakage and to improve N-use efficiency (NUE) in agricultural systems is highlighted. The ability to suppress soil nitrification by the release of nitrification inhibitors from plant roots is termed 'biological nitrification inhibition' (BNI), an active plant-mediated natural function that can limit the amount of N cycling via the nitrification pathway. The development of a bioassay using luminescent Nitrosomonas to quantify nitrification inhibitory activity from roots has facilitated the characterization of BNI function. Release of BNIs from roots is a tightly regulated physiological process, with extensive genetic variability found in selected crops and pasture grasses. Here, the current status of understanding of the BNI function is reviewed using Brachiaria forage grasses, wheat and sorghum to illustrate how BNI function can be utilized for achieving low-nitrifying agricultural systems. A fundamental shift towards ammonium (NH4(+))-dominated agricultural systems could be achieved by using crops and pastures with high BNI capacities. When viewed from an agricultural and environmental perspective, the BNI function in plants could potentially have a large influence on biogeochemical cycling and closure of the N loop in crop-livestock systems.en_US
dc.publisherOxford University Press (OUP)en_US
dc.sourceAnnals of Botany;112,(2013) Pagination 297,316en_US
dc.subjectammonia mono-oxygenaseen_US
dc.subjectbiological nitrification inhibitionen_US
dc.subjectbni capacityen_US
dc.subjecthydroxylamine oxidoreductaseen_US
dc.subjecthigh-nitrifying production systemsen_US
dc.subjectlownitrifying production systemsen_US
dc.subjectnitrate leachingen_US
dc.subjectsynthetic nitrification inhibitorsen_US
dc.subjectnitrous oxide emissionsen_US
dc.titleA paradigm shift towards low-nitrifying production systems: the role of biological nitrification inhibition (BNI)en_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen_US
cg.creator.idRao, Idupulapati: 0000-0002-8381-9358en_US
cg.creator.idIshitani, Manabu: 0000-0002-6950-4018en_US
cg.subject.agrovocfatty acidsen_US
cg.contributor.centerJapan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences - JIRCASen_US
cg.contributor.centerInternational Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics - ICRISATen_US
cg.contributor.centerInternational Center for Tropical Agriculture - CIATen_US
cg.contributor.centerYokohama City University, Kihara Institute for Biological Research - YCUen_US
cg.contributor.centerInternational Maize and Wheat Improvement Center - CIMMYTen_US
cg.contributor.centerUniversity of California, Los Angeles - UCLAen_US
cg.contributor.centerPierre and Marie Curie University, Institut d’écologie et des sciences de l’environnement de Paris - UPMC-IEESen_US
cg.contributor.crpCRP on Dryland Systems - DSen_US
cg.contributor.funderNot Applicableen_US
cg.coverage.regionSouth Americaen_US
cg.isijournalISI journalen_US
dc.identifier.statusLimited accessen_US
cg.journalAnnals of Botanyen_US

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