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Wheat is one of the most important staple crops of global food and nutritional security. The demand for wheat has been increasing substantially with the increasing human population pressure. Wheat genetic resources including crop wild relatives (CWRs) have played a significant role in wheat genetic improvement by contributing useful gene sources for yield potential, wide adaptation, dwarf plant height, improved grain quality, and resistance/tolerance to major abiotic and biotic stresses. In view of the threat of genetic erosion associated to many natural and anthropogenic factors including climate change and the rapid expansion and domination of mega wheat cultivars across the major wheat agroecologies, efforts have been made to collect and conserve wheat genetic resources including wild relatives ex situ in several gene banks of the world. It is therefore imperative to introgress these unadapted gene sources for diversification of cultivated gene pool. Further, adoption of modern tools and techniques such as focused identification of germplasm strategy (FIGS) and effective gene introgression procedures and genomics are essential in improving genetic resource utilization and breeding efficiency.