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dc.contributorAmri, Ahmeden_US
dc.contributorSanchez-Garcia, Miguelen_US
dc.contributorEl Bouhssini, Mustaphaen_US
dc.contributorOweis, Theiben_US
dc.contributorKarrou, Mohammeden_US
dc.contributorPatil, Somanagoudaen_US
dc.contributorBassi, Filippoen_US
dc.contributorBaum, Michaelen_US
dc.creatorTadesse, Wuletawen_US
dc.date2016-07-31en_US
dc.date.accessioned2017-03-09T12:43:15Z
dc.date.available2017-03-09T12:43:15Z
dc.identifierhttps://mel.cgiar.org/dspace/limiteden_US
dc.identifierhttps://shop.bdspublishing.com/checkout/Store/bds/Detail/Product/3-190-9781786760203-016en_US
dc.identifier.citationWuletaw Tadesse, Ahmed Amri, Miguel Sanchez-Garcia, Mustapha El Bouhssini, Theib Oweis, Mohammed Karrou, Somanagouda Patil, Filippo Bassi, Michael Baum. (31/7/2016). Improving wheat production in the CWANA region, in "Achieving sustainable cultivation of wheat. Volume 2: Cultivation techniques". Cambridge, United Kingdom: Burleigh Dodds Science Publishing.en_US
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11766/6337
dc.description.abstractWheat is the principal staple food in most countries of the Central and West Asia and North Africa (CWANA) region, accounting for 45% of the region’s per capita calorie intake with an average wheat consumption of about 200 kg/capita/year, which is the highest in the world. The CWANA region is a vast geographic area extending west to east from the Atlas Mountains in Morocco to the fertile irrigated Indus valley in Pakistan, and from the highland, high-rainfall areas of Ethiopia in the south to the temperate and dry northern Kazakhstan. As expected, this vast geographic area is characterized by large variations in agro-ecology, farming systems, moisture, temperature, soil types and cultural practices. Accordingly, the region harbors all kinds of wild and cultivated wheat types of different growth habits. During the period 1961-2013, wheat production area has increased from 26.9 to 54 million ha, while total production and yield (t/ha) increased from 22 to 122 million tons and from 1.1 to 2.6 t/ha, respectively. The increase in production is mainly due to the adoption of improved wheat varieties originated from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) and the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), utilization of inputs, better agronomic practices, increased area of production, and favorable policies. The most important wheat growing countries in the region (Table 1) are in decreasing order: Kazakhstan (13.7 Mha), Pakistan (8.9 Mha), Turkey (7.9 Mha), Iran (6.8 Mha), Morocco (3.0 Mha), Afghanistan (2.4 Mha), Algeria. ere is not sufficient production at regional level to cope with the increasing demand for wheat consumption. Most of the countries in the CWANA region except Kazakhstan, Syria, Pakistan and Turkey are not self-sufficient in wheat production, and accordingly, wheat is their single most important imported commodity. Among North African countries, Egypt is the largest importer with 9 million tons of wheat imported every year. According to Shiferaw et al. (2013), demand for wheat is growing at 5.6 % and 2.2 % /year in Central Asia and North Africa, respectively. In the year 2050, the population in CWANA is expected to increase from the current 0.9 billion to 1.4 billion, and the demand for wheat will rise from the present 164 million tons to 268 million tons, calling for more research and development efforts to increase wheat productivity at the regional and global levels to meet the needs of the increasing population. CWANA also hosts some of the most damaging and virulent races of diseases and pests. Farmers are typically required to apply fungicide and pesticides multiple times during their cropping season to avoid near complete losses. These chemical products are often at a premium in the small rural markets of CWANA and their availability far from certain. Furthermore, farmers are rarely trained in the deployment of integrated pest management (IPM) practices; the results of IPM malpractices can be the rapid insurgence of novel races with acquired resistance to the pesticides. The increasing cost of importing grains, combined with the heavy investments in chemical inputs, and the constant risk of the raise of new virulent races clearly show that the current status of wheat production in CWANA is not sustainable in the long term. To cope with such daunting challenge, ICARDA and its partners have identified as the primary goals for sustainability: i) the deployment of novel cultivars which include genetic resistances, yield stability, and increased yield potential; ii) training and deployment of novel agronomical practices to close the productivity gap with reduced inputs per unit of grains; iii) integrated approaches to pest and disease management to prevent the surge of new races and control the ones present.en_US
dc.formatPDFen_US
dc.languageenen_US
dc.publisherBurleigh Dodds Science Publishingen_US
dc.rightsCC-BY-NC-4.0en_US
dc.titleImproving wheat production in the CWANA regionen_US
dc.typeBook Chapteren_US
cg.creator.ID0000-0003-1175-3502en_US
cg.creator.ID0000-0003-0997-0276en_US
cg.creator.ID0000-0002-9257-4583en_US
cg.creator.ID0000-0001-8945-3126en_US
cg.creator.ID0000-0002-2003-4852en_US
cg.creator.ID0000-0002-1164-5598en_US
cg.creator.ID0000-0002-8248-6088en_US
cg.creator.ID-typeORCIDen_US
cg.creator.ID-typeORCIDen_US
cg.creator.ID-typeORCIDen_US
cg.creator.ID-typeORCIDen_US
cg.creator.ID-typeORCIDen_US
cg.creator.ID-typeORCIDen_US
cg.creator.ID-typeORCIDen_US
cg.subject.agrovocwheaten_US
cg.contributor.centerInternational Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas - ICARDAen_US
cg.contributor.crpCRP on Wheat - WHEATen_US
cg.contributor.funderInternational Maize and Wheat Improvement Center - CIMMYTen_US
cg.contributor.project-lead-instituteInternational Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas - ICARDAen_US
cg.date.embargo-end-date2116-07-31en_US
cg.coverage.regionNorthern Africaen_US
cg.coverage.regionEastern Africaen_US
cg.coverage.regionSouthern Asiaen_US
cg.coverage.regionWestern Asiaen_US
cg.coverage.regionCentral Asiaen_US
cg.coverage.countryDZen_US
cg.coverage.countryEGen_US
cg.coverage.countryETen_US
cg.coverage.countryIRen_US
cg.coverage.countryIQen_US
cg.coverage.countryJOen_US
cg.coverage.countryKZen_US
cg.coverage.countryKGen_US
cg.coverage.countryLBen_US
cg.coverage.countryLYen_US
cg.coverage.countryMAen_US
cg.coverage.countryPKen_US
cg.coverage.countrySAen_US
cg.coverage.countrySYen_US
cg.coverage.countryTJen_US
cg.coverage.countryTNen_US
cg.coverage.countryTRen_US
cg.coverage.countryTMen_US
cg.coverage.countryUZen_US
cg.coverage.countryYEen_US
cg.coverage.countrySDen_US
cg.coverage.countryAFen_US
cg.contactW.Tadesse@cgiar.orgen_US
dc.identifier.statusLimited accessen_US


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