Bread in Syria
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Fouad Jaby El-Haramein, Bashir Adleh. (3/11/2009). Bread in Syria. Food Reviews International, 10 (4), pp. 419-436.
Bread making in Syria began in the 8th millennium BC, when a settlement was established on the eastern bank of the Euphrates river at Tel Mureybat, 90 km east of Aleppo. In Syria, all the stages in the development of milling have been found. The saddlestone evolved from stones used to pound or crush the wheat into flour. Later, the quern appeared, and from the concept of the quern evolved larger stone mills, originally powered by water and then by other energy sources. By the early 1900s, roller mills were operating in Syria. Many methods of bread making have been developed and passed on over the centuries. The first breads were probably baked over hot stones; then came the development of the tannour, a kiln‐type oven, which was followed in turn by hemispherical stone ovens. During the past decade, the Syrian government has responded to an increasing demand for bread by developing flour‐milling, yeast, and baking industries, and by sponsoring the development and establishment of automatic bakery lines. Two‐layered flat (2LF) bread is the most popular bread in Syria. Its current consumption rate is about 80% higher than all other types of bread. Both durum and bread wheats are blended to produce flour for the 2LF bread. This paper attempts to document the historical and technical aspects of bread making in Syria.
- Agricultural Research Knowledge