Geoinformaticas application in Date-Palm-Pests-and-Diseases
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Chandrashekhar Biradar, Layal Atassi, Omar Khalid, Khaled El-Shamaa, Mustapha El Bouhssini, Claudia Toscano, Arash Nejatian, Azaiez Ouled Belgacem. (30/11/2018). Geoinformaticas application in Date-Palm-Pests-and-Diseases, in "Date Palm Pests and Diseases Integrated Management Guide ". Beirut, Lebanon: International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA).
Global climate variability and change (and framing system) pose a serious threat to food and to nutritional security, with increased concerns of agricultural risks and vulnerability to pests and diseases. The nature and magnitude of the risks and threats to the vulnerability of crops to insect pests and diseases are not yet well-defined and uncertain in terms of spatio-temporal distributions under ever changing bio-physical and plant physiological conditions. This hinders the effective implementation of the pest management strategies and planning of integrated pest management (IPM). One of the foremost preventive measures is to map the vulnerability of crops to specific pests and diseases. The spatial and temporal hotspots are used to curb and to mitigate the risks in advance and/or to take action on already prevailing outbreaks in order to prevent further spread. At the larger scales, fundamental ecological concepts that address factors governing species distribution were often the foundation for the development of pest risk and vulnerability maps at regional and global scales (Biradar etal., 2014). However, at local scales, such as farm level management of pests, the use of the regular and in-situ monitoring protocols is required to better understand the risks for the proper management at field scales. The spatial model combined geo-spatial climate data, crop and host phenology, persistence of pests and similarity conditions in conjunction with in-situ observations. This type of risk analysis helps to measure the persistence of the pests at a given time and location and the potential risks, vulnerability, and subsequent epidemic outbreaks in a given location. Geoinformatics tools and technology (GIS, RS, GPS, modeling, web apps) can be used to collect, archive, analyze, and visualize pests and diseases efficiently and economically for the integrated pest and disease management practices. In this chapter, we outline the geoinformatics technology and its potential application in mapping, monitoring, and management of the pest risks to help with the effective implementation of the IPM. Managers/decision makers at farm level need to understand the variability of the risks at spatio-temporal scales and decide when and where to use IPM practices and relevant control measures to reduce the risk and economic damages.
- Agricultural Research Knowledge 
El Bouhssini, Mustaphahttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-8945-3126
Ouled Belgacem, Azaiezhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-5946-7540