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dc.contributorChoi, Minhaen_US
dc.contributorAwan, Usmanen_US
dc.creatorLiaqat, Umar Waqasen_US
dc.identifier.citationUmar Waqas Liaqat, Minha Choi, Usman Awan. (30/5/2015). Spatio-temporal Distribution of Actual Evapotranspiration in the Indus Basin Irrigation System. Hydrological Processes, 29 (11), pp. 2613-2627.en_US
dc.description.abstractStrategic planning of optimal water use requires an accurate assessment of actual evapotranspiration (ETa) to understand the environmental and hydrological processes of the world’s largest contiguous irrigation networks, including the Indus Basin Irrigation System (IBIS) in Pakistan. The Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) has been used successfully for accurate estimations of ETa in different river basins throughout the world. In this study, we examined the application of SEBS using publically available remote sensing data to assess the spatial variations in water consumption and to map water stress from daily to annual scales in the IBIS. Ground based ETa was calculated by the advection-aridity (AA) method, from nine meteorological sites and used to evaluate the intra-annual seasonality in the hydrological year 2009-2010. In comparison with the AA, SEBS computed daily ETa was slightly underestimated with a bias of -0.15 mm day-1 during the kharif (wet; April-September) season and it was overestimated with a bias of 0.23 mm day-1 in the rabi (dry; October-March) season. Monthly values of the ETa estimated by SEBS were significantly (P<0.05) controlled by mean air temperature and rainfall, among other climatological variables (relative humidity, sunshine hours, and wind speed). Due to the seasonal (kharif and rabi) differences in the water and energy budget in the huge canal command areas (CCAs) of the IBIS, ETa and rainfall were positively correlated in the kharif season and were negatively correlated during the rabi season. In addition, analysis of the evaporation process showed that mixed-cropping and rice-wheat dominated areas had relatively lower and higher water consumption rates, respectively, in comparison with other cropping systems in the basin. Basin areas under water stress were identified by means of spatial variations in the relative evapotranspiration (RET), which had an average value of 0.59 and 0.42 during the kharif and the rabi seasons, respectively. The hydrological parameters used in this study provide useful information for understanding hydrological processes at different spatial and temporal scales.en_US
dc.publisherWiley: 12 monthsen_US
dc.sourceHydrological Processes;29,(2014) Pagination 2613-2627en_US
dc.subjectactual evapotranspirationen_US
dc.subjectrelative evapotranspirationen_US
dc.subjectsurface energy balance systemen_US
dc.titleSpatio-temporal Distribution of Actual Evapotranspiration in the Indus Basin Irrigation Systemen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen_US
cg.creator.idAwan, Usman: 0000-0001-8663-5688en_US
cg.subject.agrovocwater scarcityen_US
cg.contributor.centerInternational Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas - ICARDAen_US
cg.contributor.centerHanyang Universityen_US
cg.contributor.centerSungkyunkwan Universityen_US
cg.contributor.funderInternational Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas - ICARDAen_US
cg.contributor.projectCommunication and Documentation Information Services (CODIS)en_US
cg.contributor.project-lead-instituteInternational Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas - ICARDAen_US
cg.coverage.regionSouthern Asiaen_US
cg.isijournalISI Journalen_US
dc.identifier.statusLimited accessen_US
cg.journalHydrological Processesen_US

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