Parasitoids of chickpea leafminer Liriomyza cicerina (Diptera: Agromyzidae) and their parasitism rate on chickpea ﬁelds in North Tunisia
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In recent years, as a consequence of climatic changes, the leafminer Liriomyza cicerina had emerged as a serious pest in chickpea crops causing considerable damage in Tunisia. Thus, the search of control methods is necessary. The aim of this research was to monitor and identify the naturally occurring parasitoids of the chickpea leafminer Liriomyza cicerina in insecticide-free chickpea-growing areas located in North-Western Tunisia. Chickpea leaves with mines were weekly sampled from Beja and Kef sites during 2016 and 2017 and kept to observe and count emerging leafminer and parasitoid adults in the laboratory. Results revealed that L. cicerina parasitoids complex species included three hymenopteran parasitoids namely Opius monilicornis (Fisher,1962) (Braconidae); Diglyphus isaea (Walker, 1838) (Eulophidae) and Diaulinopsis arenaria (Erdös, 1951) (Eulophidae). These parasitoids were identiﬁed and recorded for the ﬁrst time in Tunisia on L. cicerina with parasitism rate varied between 13% and 52.5%. The most common species was O. monilicornis. The correlation between infestation rate on chickpea plants and number of emerged three parasitoids was calculated revealing high signiﬁcant and positive correlations. The diversity index (H′) was also calculated. The three parasitoids were found in two sites Beja and Kef; while the diversity diﬀered during the developmental stage of chickpea crops.