Indicators Review to Assess the Resilience and Sustainability of Livestock Systems in Rainfed and Irrigated Areas
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Understanding and assessing the exposure of the population and ecosystems to global changes, especially to climatic changes, and their capacity/ability of adaptation is become a major challenge of social and natural sciences over the last two decades. Two concepts have been widely mobilized: the vulnerability to address the risk management to shocks at short and medium term and the resilience to assess the adaptive capacity of the whole socio-ecological system at medium and long term. However, the heuristic quest to develop a unique approach to vulnerability or resilience that can be activated in the field seems illusory as situations are diverse; interdependencies at multiple scales are expressed differently in each case, and risk management fits into the objective and subjective perceptions of the actors.