Global Journeys of Adaptive Wheat Genes
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Miguel Sanchez-Garcia, Alison Bentley. (11/1/2019). Global Journeys of Adaptive Wheat Genes, in "Applications of Genetic and Genomic Research in Cereals". Netherlands: Elsevier (Woodhead Publishing).
Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is grown across a wide range of environments having been selected in part for a complex of genes controlling adaptive response. As a major determinant of crop yield, adaptation is central to breeding success. The vernalization (response to extended cold) and photoperiod (day-length perception) response genes, together with reduced height genes controlling plant stature are classed as adaptation genes. Their genetic control and the phenotypic consequences of allelic variants are relatively well characterized. Additional variation, including Earliness per se and pleiotropic interactions are known to exist, although most remain ill defined. Together, adaptive genes provide wheat breeders with the tools necessary to make ideotypic selection for the target environment. Additional adaptation is required to confer tolerance to drought, heat, and unbalanced soils ensuring yields are maximized across the production environments.