Laser-land leveling adoption and its impact on water use, crop yields and household income: Empirical evidence from the rice-wheat system of Pakistan Punjab
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Using a primary dataset from 350 farmers from the rice-wheat area of Pakistan Punjab, we estimate the impact of laser-land leveling on water saving, crop yields and household income. The analysis employs propensity score matching (PSM) to correct for the potential sample selection bias that may arise due to systematic differences between adopting and non-adopting farmers. In the study, 57% of farmers had access to laser land leveling, with an important role for service providers. Adoption of laser-land leveling has a positive impact on irrigation water savings, wheat and rice yields and household income. The study suggests policy implications for making laser land leveling access and performance more socially inclusive through enhanced awareness, institutional support to service providers and public-private partnerships.