Genetic imprints of domestication for disease resistance, oil quality, and yield component traits in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)
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Ploidy difference between wild Arachis species and cultivated genotypes hinder transfer of useful alleles for agronomically important traits. To overcome this genetic barrier, two synthetic tetraploids, viz., ISATGR 1212 (A. duranensis ICG 8123 × A. ipaensis ICG 8206) and ISATGR 265-5A (A. kempff-mercadoi ICG 8164 × A. hoehnei ICG 8190), were used to generate two advanced backcross (AB) populations. The AB-populations, namely, AB-pop1 (ICGV 91114 × ISATGR 1212) and AB-pop2, (ICGV 87846 × ISATGR 265-5A) were genotyped with DArT and SSR markers. Genetic maps were constructed for AB-pop1 and AB-pop2 populations with 258 loci (1415.7 cM map length and map density of 5.5 cM/loci) and 1043 loci (1500.8 cM map length with map density of 1.4 cM/loci), respectively. Genetic analysis identified large number of wild segments in the population and provided a good source of diversity in these populations. Phenotyping of these two populations identified several introgression lines with good agronomic, oil quality, and disease resistance traits. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis showed that the wild genomic segments contributed favourable alleles for foliar disease resistance while cultivated genomic segments mostly contributed favourable alleles for oil quality and yield component traits. These populations, after achieving higher stability, will be useful resource for genetic mapping and QTL discovery for wild species segments in addition to using population progenies in breeding program for diversifying the gene pool of cultivated groundnut.