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dc.contributorGregory, P.J.en_US
dc.contributorTully, D.en_US
dc.contributorHarris, H.C.en_US
dc.creatorCooper, P.J.M.en_US
dc.date2008-10-03en_US
dc.date.accessioned2021-07-01T21:07:44Z
dc.date.available2021-07-01T21:07:44Z
dc.identifierhttps://mel.cgiar.org/dspace/limiteden_US
dc.identifier.citationCooper, P. Gregory, P. J. Tully, D. & Harris, H. C. (1987). Improving water use efficiency of annual crops in the rainfed farming systems of West Asia and North Africa. Experimental Agriculture, 23, 113-158.en_US
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11766/13313
dc.description.abstractFarming systems in west Asia and north Africa have evolved to cope with the problems of highly variable and, frequently, chronically deficient rainfall. Cereals (mainly wheat and barley) are the dominant arable crops with food legumes (chickpea, lentil and faba bean) occupying only 5 to 10% of the area planted to cereals. Livestock is closely integrated into the farming system and crop production practices often reflect the importance of animals as a major source of income, particularly on the smaller farms. Soils of the region are predominantly calcareous, frequently phosphate deficient, and their depth and texture are important in determining the maximum amount of water that can be stored which, in turn, may determine the effective length of the growing season. Rain falls mainly during the winter months so that crops must often rely on stored soil moisture when they are growing most rapidly. Analysis of equations relating crop growth and water use shows that there are three ways in which the ‘water use efficiency’ of dry matter production can be increased. First, the amount of dry matter produced per unit of water transpired might be increased; second, if the water supply is limited, the amount of water transpired might be increased relative to evaporation from the soil surface; and third, the total amount of water used might be increased to produce extra growth provided that this results in increased transpiration rather than simply increasing evaporation from the soil surface. These three possible routes to increased crop growth are reviewed in relation to possible improvements in water management and crop genotypes in the Mediterranean environment. Scope for improving transpiration efficiency is limited although genotypic differences exist and may be useful in the future. More immediately, changes in crop management, such as applications of fertilizer, improved tillage and better weed control, will all increase the amount of water transpired. Application of mulches will also reduce evaporation from the soil surface but crop residues are usually eaten by livestock and are, therefore, often unavailable. The barley/livestock farming system of west Asia is used as a case study to illustrate how the Fanning Systems Programme of ICARDA has developed on-farm research programmes of direct relevance to current farming systems. Research on experimental sites directed at improving water use efficiency has been developed into on-farm trials and into collaborative trials with the Syrian Soils Directorate.en_US
dc.formatPDFen_US
dc.languageenen_US
dc.publisherCambridge University Press (CUP)en_US
dc.rightsCopyrighted; all rights reserveden_US
dc.sourceExperimental Agriculture;23,(2008) Pagination 113,158en_US
dc.subjectwater use efficiencyen_US
dc.subjectwest asia and north africaen_US
dc.subjectrainfed farming systemsen_US
dc.subjectannual cropsen_US
dc.titleImproving Water use Efficiency of Annual Crops in the Rainfed Farming Systems of West Asia and North Africaen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen_US
cg.contributor.centerInternational Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas - ICARDAen_US
cg.contributor.centerUniversity of Reading - UORen_US
cg.contributor.funderInternational Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas - ICARDAen_US
cg.contributor.projectCommunication and Documentation Information Services (CODIS)en_US
cg.contributor.project-lead-instituteInternational Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas - ICARDAen_US
cg.date.embargo-end-dateTimelessen_US
cg.coverage.regionGlobalen_US
cg.contactunknown320@unknown.comen_US
cg.identifier.doihttps://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S001447970001694Xen_US
dc.identifier.statusTimeless limited accessen_US
mel.impact-factor1.396en_US


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