Heavy metals concentration in soils under rainfed agro-ecosystems and their relationship with soil properties and management practices
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Ch. Srinivasa rao, B. Venkateswarlu, Vijay S. Jakkula, Sumanta Kundu, S. Rama Gayatri, Suhas Wani, Kanwar Lal Sahrawat, B. K. Rajasekhara Rao, Subramanian Marimuthu. (26/5/2013). Heavy metals concentration in soils under rainfed agro-ecosystems and their relationship with soil properties and management practices. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 11(7), pp. 1959-1972.
Heavy metals are governed by parent material of soils and influenced by the soil physicochemical properties and soil and crop management practices. This paper evaluates total heavy metal concentrations in rainfed soils under diverse management practices of tropical India. Vertisols (clayey soils with high shrink/swell capacity) had the highest concentrations of heavy metals. However, chromium (Cr) content was above the threshold value in Aridisol [calcium carbonate (CaC03)]-containing soils of the arid environments with subsurface horizon development. Concentration increased at lower depths (>30 cm). Basaltic soils showed higher concentrations of nickel (Ni), copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn). Cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), Cu and Mn concentrations were higher in soils cultivated to cotton, whereas Cr concentration was above the threshold level of 1 1 0 mg kg- 1 in food crop cultivated soils. As the specific soil surface is closely related to clay content and clay type, soil’s ability to retain heavy metals is more closely tied to the specific surface than to the soil