Performance and Variability of Local Barley Landraces in Near-Eastern Environments
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E. Weltzien, G. Fischbeck. (28/4/2006). Performance and Variability of Local Barley Landraces in Near-Eastern Environments. Plant Breeding, 104 (1), pp. 58-67.
Homozygous lines from six Syrian and two Jordanian landrace populations were tested under highly productive growing conditions in Tel Hadia (1982/83), under drought stress in Breda (1983/84), and under dryland salinity stress in Hegla (1982/83/84) in Syria. Mean grain yield levels ranged between 260 kg/ha and 4850 kg/ha. Under drought and salinity stress, the majority of the landrace lines out-yielded the best cheeks significantly. In Tel Hadia the check cultivars mostly outyielded the landrace lines, but not always significantly. In all environments the harvest index of the landrace lines was near the optimum for barley. They expressed intermediate plant height and time to flowering, high lodging susceptibility under favorable growing conditions, high protein content, and a wide range of yield component combinations. In the stress environments highly significant genetic variation among the landrace lines was found. The heritabilities for gram yield were high in these trials. The correlations between performance under stress and under favorable growing conditions were poor. Therefore, the largest gains for variety improvement for the Syrian steppe area are expected from direct selection under stress conditions. Unique responses in proline accumulation and germination patterns in saline solution indicated specific adaptation in this material. These landraces, thus, are a useful source of breeding material, which also widens the genetic base of the present breeding program.
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