Genome Wide Association Mapping of Seedling and Adult Plant Resistance to Barley Stripe Rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei) in India
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Barley stripe rust is caused by Puccinia striiformis f.sp. hordei, (Psh), occurs worldwide, and is a major disease in South Asia. The aim of this work was to identify and estimate effects of loci underlying quantitative resistance to rust at seedling and adult plant stages. HI-AM panel of 261 barley genotypes consisting of released cultivars from North and South America, Europe, Australia, advanced breeding lines, and local landraces from ICARDA barley program were screened at seedling and adult plant stages for resistance to Psh. Seedling resistance was evaluated with the ﬁve prevalent Psh races in India. Screening for the adult plant stage resistance was also performed in two different locations by inoculating with a mixture of the ﬁve races used for seedling screeing. The panel was genotyped using DaRT-Seq high-throughput genotyping platform. The genome-wide association mapping (GWAM) showed a total of 45 QTL located across the seven barley chromosomes for seedling resistance to the ﬁve races and 18 QTL for adult plant stage resistance. Common QTL for different races at seedling stage were found on all chromosomes except on chromosome 1H. Four common QTL associated with seedling and adult plant stage resistance were found on chromosomes 2, 5, and 6H. Moreover, one of the QTL located on the long arm of chromosome 5H showed stable effects across environments for adult plant stage resistance. Several QTL identiﬁed in this study were also reported before in bi-parental and association mapping populations studies validating current GWAM. However 15 new QTL were found at adult plant stage on all chromosomes except the 4H, explaining up to 36.79% of the variance. The promising QTL detected at both stages, once validated, can be used for MAS in Psh resistance breeding program globally.